# Getting started with DoWhy: A simple example

This is a quick introduction to the DoWhy causal inference library. We will load in a sample dataset and estimate the causal effect of a (pre-specified)treatment variable on a (pre-specified) outcome variable.

First, let us load all required packages.

[1]:

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd

import dowhy
from dowhy import CausalModel
import dowhy.datasets

# Avoid printing dataconversion warnings from sklearn
import warnings
from sklearn.exceptions import DataConversionWarning
warnings.filterwarnings(action='ignore', category=DataConversionWarning)


Now, let us load a dataset. For simplicity, we simulate a dataset with linear relationships between common causes and treatment, and common causes and outcome.

Beta is the true causal effect.

[2]:

data = dowhy.datasets.linear_dataset(beta=10,
num_common_causes=5,
num_instruments = 2,
num_effect_modifiers=1,
num_samples=20000,
treatment_is_binary=True,
num_discrete_common_causes=1)
df = data["df"]
print(data["dot_graph"])
print("\n")
print(data["gml_graph"])

         X0   Z0        Z1        W0        W1        W2        W3 W4     v0  \
0 -0.483662  0.0  0.668529 -1.834217  0.899764 -0.027259 -1.162514  2   True
1 -0.939733  0.0  0.893616 -1.211697 -0.507831  0.524436  2.010319  3   True
2 -0.601658  0.0  0.134469 -0.567716 -0.923255  0.220309  0.452579  2  False
3  0.144248  0.0  0.793546 -0.263509 -1.295114  1.636785 -0.414075  2   True
4  1.044430  0.0  0.152600 -0.561016 -0.493955  1.239707  0.058385  0   True

y
0   1.998400
1  14.928353
2   0.423244
3   9.299319
4  12.149923
digraph { U[label="Unobserved Confounders"]; U->y;v0->y;U->v0;W0-> v0; W1-> v0; W2-> v0; W3-> v0; W4-> v0;Z0-> v0; Z1-> v0;W0-> y; W1-> y; W2-> y; W3-> y; W4-> y;X0-> y;}

graph[directed 1node[ id "y" label "y"]node[ id "Unobserved Confounders" label "Unobserved Confounders"]edge[source "Unobserved Confounders" target "y"]node[ id "W0" label "W0"] node[ id "W1" label "W1"] node[ id "W2" label "W2"] node[ id "W3" label "W3"] node[ id "W4" label "W4"]node[ id "Z0" label "Z0"] node[ id "Z1" label "Z1"]node[ id "v0" label "v0"]edge[source "Unobserved Confounders" target "v0"]edge[source "v0" target "y"]edge[ source "W0" target "v0"] edge[ source "W1" target "v0"] edge[ source "W2" target "v0"] edge[ source "W3" target "v0"] edge[ source "W4" target "v0"]edge[ source "Z0" target "v0"] edge[ source "Z1" target "v0"]edge[ source "W0" target "y"] edge[ source "W1" target "y"] edge[ source "W2" target "y"] edge[ source "W3" target "y"] edge[ source "W4" target "y"]node[ id "X0" label "X0"] edge[ source "X0" target "y"]]


Note that we are using a pandas dataframe to load the data. At present, DoWhy only supports pandas dataframe as input.

## Interface 1 (recommended): Input causal graph

We now input a causal graph in the GML graph format (recommended). You can also use the DOT format.

To create the causal graph for your dataset, you can use a tool like DAGitty that provides a GUI to construct the graph. You can export the graph string that it generates. The graph string is very close to the DOT format: just rename dag to digraph, remove newlines and add a semicolon after every line, to convert it to the DOT format and input to DoWhy.

[3]:

# With graph
model=CausalModel(
data = df,
treatment=data["treatment_name"],
outcome=data["outcome_name"],
graph=data["gml_graph"]
)

INFO:dowhy.causal_model:Model to find the causal effect of treatment ['v0'] on outcome ['y']

[4]:

model.view_model()

[5]:

from IPython.display import Image, display
display(Image(filename="causal_model.png"))


The above causal graph shows the assumptions encoded in the causal model. We can now use this graph to first identify the causal effect (go from a causal estimand to a probability expression), and then estimate the causal effect.

DoWhy philosophy: Keep identification and estimation separate

Identification can be achieved without access to the data, acccesing only the graph. This results in an expression to be computed. This expression can then be evaluated using the available data in the estimation step. It is important to understand that these are orthogonal steps.

• Identification

[6]:

identified_estimand = model.identify_effect(proceed_when_unidentifiable=True)
print(identified_estimand)

WARNING:dowhy.causal_identifier:If this is observed data (not from a randomized experiment), there might always be missing confounders. Causal effect cannot be identified perfectly.
INFO:dowhy.causal_identifier:Continuing by ignoring these unobserved confounders because proceed_when_unidentifiable flag is True.
INFO:dowhy.causal_identifier:Instrumental variables for treatment and outcome:['Z0', 'Z1']
INFO:dowhy.causal_identifier:Frontdoor variables for treatment and outcome:[]

Estimand type: nonparametric-ate

### Estimand : 1
Estimand name: backdoor1 (Default)
Estimand expression:
d
─────(Expectation(y|W2,W1,W3,W4,W0,X0))
d[v₀]
Estimand assumption 1, Unconfoundedness: If U→{v0} and U→y then P(y|v0,W2,W1,W3,W4,W0,X0,U) = P(y|v0,W2,W1,W3,W4,W0,X0)

### Estimand : 2
Estimand name: backdoor2
Estimand expression:
d
─────(Expectation(y|W2,W1,W3,W4,W0))
d[v₀]
Estimand assumption 1, Unconfoundedness: If U→{v0} and U→y then P(y|v0,W2,W1,W3,W4,W0,U) = P(y|v0,W2,W1,W3,W4,W0)

### Estimand : 3
Estimand name: iv
Estimand expression:
Expectation(Derivative(y, [Z0, Z1])*Derivative([v0], [Z0, Z1])**(-1))
Estimand assumption 1, As-if-random: If U→→y then ¬(U →→{Z0,Z1})
Estimand assumption 2, Exclusion: If we remove {Z0,Z1}→{v0}, then ¬({Z0,Z1}→y)

### Estimand : 4
Estimand name: frontdoor
No such variable found!



Note the parameter flag proceed_when_unidentifiable. It needs to be set to True to convey the assumption that we are ignoring any unobserved confounding. The default behavior is to prompt the user to double-check that the unobserved confounders can be ignored.

• Estimation

[7]:

causal_estimate = model.estimate_effect(identified_estimand,
method_name="backdoor.propensity_score_stratification")
print(causal_estimate)
print("Causal Estimate is " + str(causal_estimate.value))

INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W1+W3+W4+W0+X0

*** Causal Estimate ***

## Identified estimand
Estimand type: nonparametric-ate

## Realized estimand
b: y~v0+W2+W1+W3+W4+W0+X0
Target units: ate

## Estimate
Mean value: 11.627362169966906

Causal Estimate is 11.627362169966906


You can input additional parameters to the estimate_effect method. For instance, to estimate the effect on any subset of the units, you can specify the “target_units” parameter which can be a string (“ate”, “att”, or “atc”), lambda function that filters rows of the data frame, or a new dataframe on which to compute the effect. You can also specify “effect modifiers” to estimate heterogeneous effects across these variables. See help(CausalModel.estimate_effect).

[8]:

# Causal effect on the control group (ATC)
causal_estimate_att = model.estimate_effect(identified_estimand,
method_name="backdoor.propensity_score_stratification",
target_units = "atc")
print(causal_estimate_att)
print("Causal Estimate is " + str(causal_estimate_att.value))

INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W1+W3+W4+W0+X0

*** Causal Estimate ***

## Identified estimand
Estimand type: nonparametric-ate

## Realized estimand
b: y~v0+W2+W1+W3+W4+W0+X0
Target units: atc

## Estimate
Mean value: 11.976290956605318

Causal Estimate is 11.976290956605318


## Interface 2: Specify common causes and instruments

[9]:

# Without graph
model= CausalModel(
data=df,
treatment=data["treatment_name"],
outcome=data["outcome_name"],
common_causes=data["common_causes_names"],
effect_modifiers=data["effect_modifier_names"])

WARNING:dowhy.causal_model:Causal Graph not provided. DoWhy will construct a graph based on data inputs.
INFO:dowhy.causal_graph:If this is observed data (not from a randomized experiment), there might always be missing confounders. Adding a node named "Unobserved Confounders" to reflect this.
INFO:dowhy.causal_model:Model to find the causal effect of treatment ['v0'] on outcome ['y']

[10]:

model.view_model()

[11]:

from IPython.display import Image, display
display(Image(filename="causal_model.png"))


We get the same causal graph. Now identification and estimation is done as before.

[12]:

identified_estimand = model.identify_effect(proceed_when_unidentifiable=True)

WARNING:dowhy.causal_identifier:If this is observed data (not from a randomized experiment), there might always be missing confounders. Causal effect cannot be identified perfectly.
INFO:dowhy.causal_identifier:Continuing by ignoring these unobserved confounders because proceed_when_unidentifiable flag is True.
INFO:dowhy.causal_identifier:Instrumental variables for treatment and outcome:[]
INFO:dowhy.causal_identifier:Frontdoor variables for treatment and outcome:[]

• Estimation

[13]:

estimate = model.estimate_effect(identified_estimand,
method_name="backdoor.propensity_score_stratification")
print(estimate)
print("Causal Estimate is " + str(estimate.value))

INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3

*** Causal Estimate ***

## Identified estimand
Estimand type: nonparametric-ate

## Realized estimand
b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
Target units: ate

## Estimate
Mean value: 11.715836681382548

Causal Estimate is 11.715836681382548


## Refuting the estimate

Let us now look at ways of refuting the estimate obtained.

### Adding a random common cause variable

[14]:

res_random=model.refute_estimate(identified_estimand, estimate, method_name="random_common_cause")
print(res_random)

INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3+w_random

Refute: Add a Random Common Cause
Estimated effect:11.715836681382548
New effect:11.793706914431112



### Adding an unobserved common cause variable

[15]:

res_unobserved=model.refute_estimate(identified_estimand, estimate, method_name="add_unobserved_common_cause",
confounders_effect_on_treatment="binary_flip", confounders_effect_on_outcome="linear",
effect_strength_on_treatment=0.01, effect_strength_on_outcome=0.02)
print(res_unobserved)

INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3

Refute: Add an Unobserved Common Cause
Estimated effect:11.715836681382548
New effect:10.66151529844423



### Replacing treatment with a random (placebo) variable

[16]:

res_placebo=model.refute_estimate(identified_estimand, estimate,
method_name="placebo_treatment_refuter", placebo_type="permute")
print(res_placebo)

INFO:dowhy.causal_refuters.placebo_treatment_refuter:Refutation over 100 simulated datasets of permute treatment
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
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INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~placebo+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_refuters.placebo_treatment_refuter:Making use of Bootstrap as we have more than 100 examples.
Note: The greater the number of examples, the more accurate are the confidence estimates

Refute: Use a Placebo Treatment
Estimated effect:11.715836681382548
New effect:0.0031356825084195824
p value:0.48



### Removing a random subset of the data

[17]:

res_subset=model.refute_estimate(identified_estimand, estimate,
method_name="data_subset_refuter", subset_fraction=0.9)
print(res_subset)

INFO:dowhy.causal_refuters.data_subset_refuter:Refutation over 0.9 simulated datasets of size 18000.0 each
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_refuters.data_subset_refuter:Making use of Bootstrap as we have more than 100 examples.
Note: The greater the number of examples, the more accurate are the confidence estimates

Refute: Use a subset of data
Estimated effect:11.715836681382548
New effect:11.64133310815932
p value:0.21999999999999997



As you can see, the propensity score stratification estimator is reasonably robust to refutations. For reproducibility, you can add a parameter “random_seed” to any refutation method, as shown below.

[18]:

res_subset=model.refute_estimate(identified_estimand, estimate,
method_name="data_subset_refuter", subset_fraction=0.9, random_seed = 1)
print(res_subset)

INFO:dowhy.causal_refuters.data_subset_refuter:Refutation over 0.9 simulated datasets of size 18000.0 each
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:INFO: Using Propensity Score Stratification Estimator
INFO:dowhy.causal_estimator:b: y~v0+W2+W4+W1+W0+W3
INFO:dowhy.causal_refuters.data_subset_refuter:Making use of Bootstrap as we have more than 100 examples.
Note: The greater the number of examples, the more accurate are the confidence estimates

Refute: Use a subset of data
Estimated effect:11.715836681382548
New effect:11.616914320133281
p value:0.24