Natural experiments and instrumental variables

To identify effect using the instrumental variable criterion, we use the same identify_effect method. It checks for all possible identification strategies among backdoor, frontdoor, and instrumental variables.

>>> # model is an instance of CausalModel
>>> identified_estimand = model.identify_effect()
>>> print(identified_estimand)

For an example of using instrumental variable strategy to estimate causal effect, see Simple example on using Instrumental Variables method for estimation.