Source code for dowhy.causal_graph

import itertools
import logging
import re

import networkx as nx

from dowhy.utils.api import parse_state
from dowhy.utils.graph_operations import daggity_to_dot
from dowhy.utils.plotting import plot

[docs]class CausalGraph: """Class for creating and modifying the causal graph. Accepts a graph string (or a text file) in gml format (preferred) and dot format. Graphviz-like attributes can be set for edges and nodes. E.g. style="dashed" as an edge attribute ensures that the edge is drawn with a dashed line. If a graph string is not given, names of treatment, outcome, and confounders, instruments and effect modifiers (if any) can be provided to create the graph. """ def __init__( self, treatment_name, outcome_name, graph=None, common_cause_names=None, instrument_names=None, effect_modifier_names=None, mediator_names=None, observed_node_names=None, missing_nodes_as_confounders=False, ): self.treatment_name = parse_state(treatment_name) self.outcome_name = parse_state(outcome_name) instrument_names = parse_state(instrument_names) common_cause_names = parse_state(common_cause_names) effect_modifier_names = parse_state(effect_modifier_names) mediator_names = parse_state(mediator_names) self.logger = logging.getLogger(__name__) # re.sub only takes string parameter so the first if is to avoid error # if the input is a text file, convert the contained data into string if isinstance(graph, str) and re.match(r".*\.txt", str(graph)): text_file = open(graph, "r") graph = text_file.close() if isinstance(graph, str) and re.match(r"^dag", graph): # Convert daggity output to dot format graph = daggity_to_dot(graph) if isinstance(graph, str): graph = graph.replace("\n", " ") if graph is None: self._graph = nx.DiGraph() self._graph = self.build_graph(common_cause_names, instrument_names, effect_modifier_names, mediator_names) elif re.match(r".*\.dot", graph): # load dot file try: import pygraphviz as pgv self._graph = nx.DiGraph(nx.drawing.nx_agraph.read_dot(graph)) except Exception as e: self.logger.error("Pygraphviz cannot be loaded. " + str(e) + "\nTrying pydot...") try: import pydot self._graph = nx.DiGraph(nx.drawing.nx_pydot.read_dot(graph)) except Exception as e: self.logger.error("Error: Pydot cannot be loaded. " + str(e)) raise e elif re.match(r".*\.gml", graph): self._graph = nx.DiGraph(nx.read_gml(graph)) elif re.match(r".*graph\s*\{.*\}\s*", graph): try: import pygraphviz as pgv self._graph = pgv.AGraph(graph, strict=True, directed=True) self._graph = nx.drawing.nx_agraph.from_agraph(self._graph) except Exception as e: self.logger.error("Error: Pygraphviz cannot be loaded. " + str(e) + "\nTrying pydot ...") try: import pydot P_list = pydot.graph_from_dot_data(graph) self._graph = nx.drawing.nx_pydot.from_pydot(P_list[0]) except Exception as e: self.logger.error("Error: Pydot cannot be loaded. " + str(e)) raise e elif re.match(".*graph\s*\[.*\]\s*", graph): self._graph = nx.DiGraph(nx.parse_gml(graph)) else: self.logger.error("Error: Please provide graph (as string or text file) in dot or gml format.") self.logger.error("Error: Incorrect graph format") raise ValueError if missing_nodes_as_confounders: self._graph = self.add_missing_nodes_as_common_causes(observed_node_names) # Adding node attributes self._graph = self.add_node_attributes(observed_node_names)
[docs] def view_graph(self, layout=None, size=None, file_name="causal_model"): plot(self._graph, layout_prog=layout, figure_size=size, filename=file_name + ".png")
[docs] def build_graph(self, common_cause_names, instrument_names, effect_modifier_names, mediator_names): """Creates nodes and edges based on variable names and their semantics. Currently only considers the graphical representation of "direct" effect modifiers. Thus, all effect modifiers are assumed to be "direct" unless otherwise expressed using a graph. Based on the taxonomy of effect modifiers by VanderWheele and Robins: "Four types of effect modification: A classification based on directed acyclic graphs. Epidemiology. 2007." """ for treatment in self.treatment_name: self._graph.add_node(treatment, observed="yes", penwidth=2) for outcome in self.outcome_name: self._graph.add_node(outcome, observed="yes", penwidth=2) for treatment, outcome in itertools.product(self.treatment_name, self.outcome_name): # adding penwidth to make the edge bold self._graph.add_edge(treatment, outcome, penwidth=2) # Adding common causes if common_cause_names is not None: for node_name in common_cause_names: for treatment, outcome in itertools.product(self.treatment_name, self.outcome_name): self._graph.add_node(node_name, observed="yes") self._graph.add_edge(node_name, treatment) self._graph.add_edge(node_name, outcome) # Adding instruments if instrument_names: if type(instrument_names[0]) != tuple: if len(self.treatment_name) > 1:"Assuming Instrument points to all treatments! Use tuples for more granularity.") for instrument, treatment in itertools.product(instrument_names, self.treatment_name): self._graph.add_node(instrument, observed="yes") self._graph.add_edge(instrument, treatment) else: for instrument, treatment in itertools.product(instrument_names): self._graph.add_node(instrument, observed="yes") self._graph.add_edge(instrument, treatment) # Adding effect modifiers if effect_modifier_names is not None: for node_name in effect_modifier_names: if node_name not in common_cause_names: for outcome in self.outcome_name: self._graph.add_node(node_name, observed="yes") # Assuming the simple form of effect modifier # that directly causes the outcome. self._graph.add_edge(node_name, outcome) # self._graph.add_edge(node_name, outcome, style = "dotted", headport="s", tailport="n") # self._graph.add_edge(outcome, node_name, style = "dotted", headport="n", tailport="s") # TODO make the ports more general so that they apply not just to top-bottom node configurations self._graph.nodes[node_name]["effectmodifier"] = True if mediator_names is not None: for node_name in mediator_names: for treatment, outcome in itertools.product(self.treatment_name, self.outcome_name): self._graph.add_node(node_name, observed="yes") self._graph.add_edge(treatment, node_name) self._graph.add_edge(node_name, outcome) return self._graph
[docs] def add_node_attributes(self, observed_node_names): for node_name in self._graph: if node_name in observed_node_names: self._graph.nodes[node_name]["observed"] = "yes" else: self._graph.nodes[node_name]["observed"] = "no" return self._graph
[docs] def add_missing_nodes_as_common_causes(self, observed_node_names): # Adding columns in the dataframe as confounders that were not in the graph for node_name in observed_node_names: if node_name not in self._graph: self._graph.add_node(node_name, observed="yes") for treatment_outcome_node in self.treatment_name + self.outcome_name: self._graph.add_edge(node_name, treatment_outcome_node) return self._graph
[docs] def add_unobserved_common_cause(self, observed_node_names, color="gray"): # Adding unobserved confounders current_common_causes = self.get_common_causes(self.treatment_name, self.outcome_name) create_new_common_cause = True for node_name in current_common_causes: if self._graph.nodes[node_name]["observed"] == "no": create_new_common_cause = False if create_new_common_cause: uc_label = "Unobserved Confounders" self._graph.add_node("U", label=uc_label, observed="no", color=color, style="filled", fillcolor=color) for node in self.treatment_name + self.outcome_name: self._graph.add_edge("U", node) 'If this is observed data (not from a randomized experiment), there might always be missing confounders. Adding a node named "Unobserved Confounders" to reflect this.' ) return self._graph
[docs] def get_unconfounded_observed_subgraph(self): observed_nodes = [node for node in self._graph.nodes() if self._graph.nodes[node]["observed"] == "yes"] return self._graph.subgraph(observed_nodes)
[docs] def do_surgery( self, node_names, remove_outgoing_edges=False, remove_incoming_edges=False, target_node_names=None, remove_only_direct_edges_to_target=False, ): """Method to create a new graph based on the concept of do-surgery. :param node_names: focal nodes for the surgery :param remove_outgoing_edges: whether to remove outgoing edges from the focal nodes :param remove_incoming_edges: whether to remove incoming edges to the focal nodes :param target_node_names: target nodes (optional) for the surgery, only used when remove_only_direct_edges_to_target is True :param remove_only_direct_edges_to_target: whether to remove only the direct edges from focal nodes to the target nodes :returns: a new networkx graph after the specified removal of edges """ node_names = parse_state(node_names) new_graph = self._graph.copy() for node_name in node_names: if remove_outgoing_edges: if remove_only_direct_edges_to_target: new_graph.remove_edges_from([(node_name, v) for v in target_node_names]) else: children = new_graph.successors(node_name) edges_bunch = [(node_name, child) for child in children] new_graph.remove_edges_from(edges_bunch) if remove_incoming_edges: # removal of only direct edges wrt a target is not implemented for incoming edges parents = new_graph.predecessors(node_name) edges_bunch = [(parent, node_name) for parent in parents] new_graph.remove_edges_from(edges_bunch) return new_graph
[docs] def get_causes(self, nodes, remove_edges=None): nodes = parse_state(nodes) new_graph = None if remove_edges is not None: new_graph = self._graph.copy() # caution: shallow copy of the attributes sources = parse_state(remove_edges["sources"]) targets = parse_state(remove_edges["targets"]) for s in sources: for t in targets: new_graph.remove_edge(s, t) causes = set() for v in nodes: causes = causes.union(self.get_ancestors(v, new_graph=new_graph)) return causes
[docs] def check_dseparation(self, nodes1, nodes2, nodes3, new_graph=None, dseparation_algo="default"): if dseparation_algo == "default": if new_graph is None: new_graph = self._graph dseparated = nx.algorithms.d_separated(new_graph, set(nodes1), set(nodes2), set(nodes3)) else: raise ValueError(f"{dseparation_algo} method for d-separation not supported.") return dseparated
[docs] def check_valid_backdoor_set( self, nodes1, nodes2, nodes3, backdoor_paths=None, new_graph=None, dseparation_algo="default" ): """Assume that the first parameter (nodes1) is the treatment, the second is the outcome, and the third is the candidate backdoor set """ # also return the number of backdoor paths blocked by observed nodes if dseparation_algo == "default": if new_graph is None: # Assume that nodes1 is the treatment new_graph = self.do_surgery(nodes1, remove_outgoing_edges=True) dseparated = nx.algorithms.d_separated(new_graph, set(nodes1), set(nodes2), set(nodes3)) elif dseparation_algo == "naive": # ignores new_graph parameter, always uses self._graph if backdoor_paths is None: backdoor_paths = self.get_backdoor_paths(nodes1, nodes2) dseparated = all([self.is_blocked(path, nodes3) for path in backdoor_paths]) else: raise ValueError(f"{dseparation_algo} method for d-separation not supported.") return {"is_dseparated": dseparated}
[docs] def get_backdoor_paths(self, nodes1, nodes2): paths = [] undirected_graph = self._graph.to_undirected() nodes12 = set(nodes1).union(nodes2) for node1 in nodes1: for node2 in nodes2: backdoor_paths = [ pth for pth in nx.all_simple_paths(undirected_graph, source=node1, target=node2) if self._graph.has_edge(pth[1], pth[0]) ] # remove paths that have nodes1\node1 or nodes2\node2 as intermediate nodes filtered_backdoor_paths = [pth for pth in backdoor_paths if len(nodes12.intersection(pth[1:-1])) == 0] paths.extend(filtered_backdoor_paths) self.logger.debug("Backdoor paths: " + str(paths)) return paths
[docs] def is_blocked(self, path, conditioned_nodes): """Uses d-separation criteria to decide if conditioned_nodes block given path.""" blocked_by_conditioning = False has_unconditioned_collider = False for i in range(len(path) - 2): if self._graph.has_edge(path[i], path[i + 1]) and self._graph.has_edge( path[i + 2], path[i + 1] ): # collider collider_descendants = nx.descendants(self._graph, path[i + 1]) if path[i + 1] not in conditioned_nodes and all( cdesc not in conditioned_nodes for cdesc in collider_descendants ): has_unconditioned_collider = True else: # chain or fork if path[i + 1] in conditioned_nodes: blocked_by_conditioning = True break if blocked_by_conditioning: return True elif has_unconditioned_collider: return True else: return False
[docs] def get_common_causes(self, nodes1, nodes2): """ Assume that nodes1 causes nodes2 (e.g., nodes1 are the treatments and nodes2 are the outcomes) """ # TODO Refactor to remove this from here and only implement this logic in causalIdentifier. Unnecessary assumption of nodes1 to be causing nodes2. nodes1 = parse_state(nodes1) nodes2 = parse_state(nodes2) causes_1 = set() causes_2 = set() for node in nodes1: causes_1 = causes_1.union(self.get_ancestors(node)) for node in nodes2: # Cannot simply compute ancestors, since that will also include nodes1 and its parents (e.g. instruments) parents_2 = self.get_parents(node) for parent in parents_2: if parent not in nodes1: causes_2 = causes_2.union( set( [ parent, ] ) ) causes_2 = causes_2.union(self.get_ancestors(parent)) return list(causes_1.intersection(causes_2))
[docs] def get_effect_modifiers(self, nodes1, nodes2): # Return effect modifiers according to the graph modifiers = set() for node in nodes2: modifiers = modifiers.union(self.get_ancestors(node)) modifiers = modifiers.difference(nodes1) for node in nodes1: modifiers = modifiers.difference(self.get_ancestors(node)) # removing all mediators for node1 in nodes1: for node2 in nodes2: all_directed_paths = nx.all_simple_paths(self._graph, node1, node2) for path in all_directed_paths: modifiers = modifiers.difference(path) # Also add any effect modifiers that could not be auto-detected (e.g., they are also common causes) marked_modifiers = [n for n, ndata in self._graph.nodes(data=True) if "effectmodifier" in ndata] modifiers = modifiers.union(marked_modifiers) return list(modifiers)
[docs] def get_parents(self, node_name): return set(self._graph.predecessors(node_name))
[docs] def get_ancestors(self, node_name, new_graph=None): if new_graph is None: graph = self._graph else: graph = new_graph return set(nx.ancestors(graph, node_name))
[docs] def get_descendants(self, nodes): descendants = set() for node_name in nodes: descendants = descendants.union(set(nx.descendants(self._graph, node_name))) return descendants
[docs] def all_observed(self, node_names): for node_name in node_names: if self._graph.nodes[node_name]["observed"] != "yes": return False return True
[docs] def get_all_nodes(self, include_unobserved=True): nodes = self._graph.nodes if not include_unobserved: nodes = set(self.filter_unobserved_variables(nodes)) return nodes
[docs] def filter_unobserved_variables(self, node_names): observed_node_names = list() for node_name in node_names: if self._graph.nodes[node_name]["observed"] == "yes": observed_node_names.append(node_name) return observed_node_names
[docs] def get_instruments(self, treatment_nodes, outcome_nodes): treatment_nodes = parse_state(treatment_nodes) outcome_nodes = parse_state(outcome_nodes) parents_treatment = set() for node in treatment_nodes: parents_treatment = parents_treatment.union(self.get_parents(node)) g_no_parents_treatment = self.do_surgery(treatment_nodes, remove_incoming_edges=True) ancestors_outcome = set() for node in outcome_nodes: ancestors_outcome = ancestors_outcome.union(nx.ancestors(g_no_parents_treatment, node)) # [TODO: double check these work with multivariate implementation:] # Exclusion candidate_instruments = parents_treatment.difference(ancestors_outcome) self.logger.debug("Candidate instruments after satisfying exclusion: %s", candidate_instruments) # As-if-random setup children_causes_outcome = [nx.descendants(g_no_parents_treatment, v) for v in ancestors_outcome] children_causes_outcome = set([item for sublist in children_causes_outcome for item in sublist]) # As-if-random instruments = candidate_instruments.difference(children_causes_outcome) self.logger.debug("Candidate instruments after satisfying exclusion and as-if-random: %s", instruments) return list(instruments)
[docs] def get_all_directed_paths(self, nodes1, nodes2): """Get all directed paths between sets of nodes. Currently only supports singleton sets. """ node1 = nodes1[0] node2 = nodes2[0] # convert the outputted generator into a list return [p for p in nx.all_simple_paths(self._graph, source=node1, target=node2)]
[docs] def has_directed_path(self, nodes1, nodes2): """Checks if there is any directed path between two sets of nodes. Currently only supports singleton sets. """ # dpaths = self.get_all_directed_paths(nodes1, nodes2) # return len(dpaths) > 0 return nx.has_path(self._graph, nodes1[0], nodes2[0])
[docs] def get_adjacency_matrix(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Get adjacency matrix from the networkx graph """ return nx.convert_matrix.to_numpy_array(self._graph, *args, **kwargs)
[docs] def check_valid_frontdoor_set( self, nodes1, nodes2, candidate_nodes, frontdoor_paths=None, new_graph=None, dseparation_algo="default" ): """Check if valid the frontdoor variables for set of treatments, nodes1 to set of outcomes, nodes2.""" # Condition 1: node 1 ---> node 2 is intercepted by candidate_nodes if dseparation_algo == "default": if new_graph is None: new_graph = self._graph dseparated = nx.algorithms.d_separated(new_graph, set(nodes1), set(nodes2), set(candidate_nodes)) elif dseparation_algo == "naive": if frontdoor_paths is None: frontdoor_paths = self.get_all_directed_paths(nodes1, nodes2) dseparated = all([self.is_blocked(path, candidate_nodes) for path in frontdoor_paths]) else: raise ValueError(f"{dseparation_algo} method for d-separation not supported.") return dseparated
[docs] def check_valid_mediation_set(self, nodes1, nodes2, candidate_nodes, mediation_paths=None): """Check if candidate nodes are valid mediators for set of treatments, nodes1 to set of outcomes, nodes2.""" if mediation_paths is None: mediation_paths = self.get_all_directed_paths(nodes1, nodes2) is_mediator = any([self.is_blocked(path, candidate_nodes) for path in mediation_paths]) return is_mediator